Disajikan dalam “International Media Conference UPN V Jawa Timur 2019 ” di Surabaya
Tourism by the 2015 has been established by Jokowi the President of Indonesia as the Leading Sector in Indonesia, therefore all Ministries ( Especially ministry of tourism) and government organization are obliged to support its development program. Tourism in Indonesia is superior compared to other sectors like mining, and trade, for example being able to become the largest foreign exchange earner and being able to be the best contribution in the region. This is very possible because Indonesia has the potential for tourist attractions and destination, both natural and cultural and man made, which are very diverse and world-class quality.
Indonesian tourism has become an important sector in develop the national economy growth both in calculating foreign exchange and employment. Tourism is included in the priority sector so that various matters relating to tourism become important. The target of increasing tourist visits from year to year is always increasing. Creative strategies are needed in the management of tourism such as the management of tourism destinations and attractions including tourism events.
The Ministry of Tourism as a national policy stakeholder has various strategies to develop tourism sectors. Related to the event, in the last three years Ministry of Tourism have been curation of various events so that the calendar of national events appears. Indonesia has more than 3,000 tourism events spread across 34 provinces. As a part of tourism event is impartant like a destination, the event has become one of the main attractions in Indonesian tourism. The success of an event is a way to achieve the target of tourist arrivals which in 2019 recorded 18 million foreign tourists and 250 million domestic tourists.
Last of December 2018, Ministry of Tourism selected more than 3000 tourism events and established 100 national tourism events in Indonesia and 10 main tourism events in 2019. The curation process of this event was strict and had standards to be able to be nationalized as national events. The curators comes from professional, arts and person who mastering in events.
Events have a very strategic role in achieving goals, namely the number of tourist visits. Various basic matters related to the event include concepts to marketing strategies which include promotion strategies. Various fundamental things become important points in marketing including branding, positioning and commitment from the locals government. Timeline and promotional material need for support the goals.
In a variety of media reporting various events held from January to September 2019 claimed success by the Ministry of Tourism. However, if seen from the number of visits, especially foreign tourists until the end of September 2019, only reached 10 million tourists. This figure is still far from the target of 18 million tourists. Marketing strategy is the key in bringing tourists, this research will focus on how the marketing strategy carried out by the Ministry of Tourism in promoting 110 Top 101 Indonesia Tourism Events.
This research focuses on how the marketing strategy of the Top 110 Calendar of Events from Ministry of Tourism. To answer this research question we use several approaches including tourism marketing communication, marketing strategy and media strategy.
Tourism Marketing Communication
The Ministry of Tourism has special scheme for communication in tourism marketing. Tourism marketing communications is a branch of marketing communications science which focuses on marketing communication and tourism. Philips Kotler said that marketing communication science focused 4 elements of product, place, price and promotion (Kotler, 2016). This research focus on promotion that media strategy become a focus strategy for supporting Top 110 Event in 2019. Another pattern are collaboration between positioning, differentiating and branding.
Theory for tourism marketing communication is the concept of marketing strategy, marketing tactic and marketing value. Positioning refer to the customer, while differentiating refer to product and branding referring to the value. This collaboration can be seen in the following table ( Arief Yahya: 2013)
The concept of tourism marketing communication could not be found separated from the use of promotion mix. Promotional mix used for increasing information and brand include advertising, public relations, sales promotion and personal selling. Without media, this element could not running well. Media strategy guiding the communication doing well and effective
Event as tourism product consist of product, place, price and promotion. Product refers to three elements of amenity, attraction and access to the event. Price refers to ticket or package to join the event. Place refers to where the event and time of show. Promotion consist of promotion mix, how direct sales, public relation, publicity and advertising deliver to achieve the goals, giving information and calling visitors to come.
Positioning, Differentiation and Branding
By the theory of positioning, Davis Ogilvy noted that while there was no real consensus as to the meaning of positioning among marketing experts in the world, but Ogilvy definition of positioning is “what a product does, and who it is for”. Concept of perceived value is related closely with the meaning of positioning . For marketing event, value is defined as the difference between a prospective customer’s evaluation of the benefits and costs of one product when compared one tourism event with others. Value can be expressed in numerous forms including tourism product benefits, event features, event style, value for goals.
Positioningrefers to the place that a event occupies in the minds of the customers and how it is distinguished from the products (event) of the competitors. In order to position products (event) or brands ( event name), Ministry of Tourism may emphasize the distinguishing features of their brand. Theory of positioning is one of the most powerful concepts in marketing. By the positioning Ministry of tourism know how to deliver and reach the visitors as customers.
Differentiating need for treats the different event product. Differentiation is closely related to the concept of positioning in marketing. Differentiating is how event by the Ministry of Tourism product is unique, by being the first, least expensive, or some other distinguishing factor. An event may have many points of difference by the others, but they may not all be meaningful or relevant to the target market. Positioning is something or perception that happens in the minds of the audience whereas differentiation is something that Ministry of Tourism do, whether through product design, pricing or promotion activity.
Media strategy for event promotion is very closed concept. Arief Yahya, The Minister of Tourism ( 2014 until Octiber 2019) said that Ministry of Tourism develop three elements walk hand in hand with promotion. There is marketing strategy, promotion strategy and media strategy. For marketing strategy have just explain in the up section. Promotion strategy consist of BAS ( branding , advertising and selling).
Media strategy is one of the focus of this research consist of 4 element called POSE (paid media, own media, social media and endorser). Paid media is media operate by agency or external organization and the Ministry of Tourism rent their space. Own media is media develop by internal (Ministry of Tourism). Social media is digital platform develop by some companies so that people can use as personal media. People in social media became a media when they have number of follower, built an engagement and being opinion leader. Endorser are media strategy by using key opinion leader ( KEOL) in each media for supporting communication program. Endorser is an icon from brand, represent the brand and giving testimony about the brand. Some of endorser are politician, public figure, and artist or people who has large number of follower and build active engagement as media. Media strategy by Ministry of Tourism can be seen in the following table ( Arief, Yahya 2016) :
This research using descriptive qualitative method and by analyze the data by interview the number of Ministry Tourism member who concerning in Top 110 National Event during 2019, policy maker, annual report, social media and mass media studies during December 2018 – October 2019. The data will proceed by triangulation method by analyze data from the interview, mass media study, report study and analyze by researcher. Researcher interview with the staff of Ministry of Tourism, Some regional Tourism Boards, Community, Business, annual report from Ministry of Tourism also paper presentation of the Minister in any press release and conference.
RESULT AND DISCUSSION
The Ministry of Tourism in various media stated that Ministry of Tourism has various marketing strategies especially related to the main Indonesian tourism event. Ministry of Tourism realizes that communication plays an important role in determining the success of the event performance. Various indicators of the success of the event including crowed arising from the results of the promotion. The number of tourists who come to an event is the expected impact and goals of the event. In addition, exposure in the media, both news portals and social media are significant indicator. Uploads on social media indicate as public responses to events. Community participation in tourism promotion becomes a strength because it shows the level of public awareness and participation.
Ministry of Tourism launch 110 events as the main Indonesia tourism event. Positioning as the main event results in standarization that must be carried out as an effort to maintain quality. This situation makes the ministry have the obligation to provide support in both supervision, budgeting and promotion. In the interview conducted to media special staff member Don Kardono, the biggest support carried out by the ministry was in terms of marketing or promotion events. Making promotional materials, reporting, to the use of internal and endorser media.Ministry of Tourism classified 110 Top National Tourism Events into 2 groups 100 National Top Events and 10 Wonderful Events. This classification is carried out related to the standard of setting and targets in bringing tourists. There are differences in support in terms of supporting, of course 10 Wonderful Event will get more support and attention. The curators used are the best curators from the media, creative events, commercial values, choreographers, cultural experts and masters in the field of tourism events.
Positioning as Top 110 National Tourism event represents the quality and class of the event. Of course the events that are included in this list will feel proud because through a fairly tight curation and become 110 of the best among 3000 tourism events held throughout the year in Indonesia. Determination of 110 Top Events itself is a form of positioning that this event is the main focus and attention. Labeling as 110 Top Tourism Event raises class and gives pride to the holding of the event.
This positioning is further strengthened by the scheme created by registering events in the curation list, submission by the region to the tourism ministry, the curation process and announcements packaged in the 110 Top Tourism Event launching. Launching of !!0 Top Tourism Event is set to show good positioning by creating special events with interesting concepts. Launching is carried out directly by the minister Arief Yahya in December 2018 and his staff at the end of the year so that it shows a privilege by inviting various media and making publications. This serves as the initial starting of marketing and promotional efforts towards the Top 110 national events.
The Wonderful 2019 Calendar of Events, which consists of 10 Top National Events and 100 Wonderful Events, was created at the initiative of the President of the Republic of Indonesia who wants Indonesia to have quality and international standard events to attract tourist visits. This is also in line with the current millennial travel trend which is full of digital content and has proven effective in helping to promote a destination / event so that it is viral and visited by many people. Events from 34 provinces have been selected through strict curation based on established criteria; that is, they must have Creative Value, Commercial Value, and Communication Value, and CEO Commitment.
These events have become prominent, especially events that have become in priority destinations. There are 10 destinations that become the Ministry of Tourism’s superiority in the promotion of the tourism potential of the homeland namely Greater Jakarta, Greater Bali, Greater Batam, Medan, Bandung, Joglosemar – Yogyakarta, Solo and Semarang, Bayuwangi, Lombok, Makassar, Bunaken, Wakatobi and Raja Ampat. Top 110 Tourism Evet 2019 was also adjusted to promotions that helt on 10 priority destinations known as 10 new Bali.
The Top 110 Event targets both domestic and foreign tourists to attend and enjoy various attractions presented. The top 110 tourism events, it was divided into several categories, including those based on culture, nature and man made. The branding carried out by the tourism ministry in communicating the top 110 national events is as the flagship event. As tourism product, marketing mix theory of event products includes three things: attraction, accessibility and amenities. These mandatory requirements become the basic criteria in assessing events. The price in this case is the price of the package or ticket in the event. Some events can be accessed free of charge. Place refers to the location where the event must be made clear, in this case the top 110 events are held in 34 provinces. While the promotion will be discussed in the promotion strategy section.
The Top 110 Marketing tourism event cannot be separated from the main brand “Wonderful Indonesia” as the Indonesian tourism master brand. There are differences in the inclusion of logos and brands. If an international event, the logo used is “Wonderful Indonesia” logo while for the domestic event the “Pesona Indonesia”. The logo must be listed as the northern logo with the model of “five sensory wonders” which is the branding standard of the ministry of tourism. There are five different colors of tendrils which are distinguished based on the type of event that is culture, nature, man made, modernity and adventure.
The Ministry of Tourism makes the sales mission as a market to promote Top 110 calendar of events. In various table top activities, for example, many tour packages are sold, the main attraction of which is events. The sales mission is carried out by involving the tourism industry and the involvement of event organizers. Some various events have created websites completed with booking method in one system. Creating a digital infrastructure for sales is important because it is practical and able to provide diverse information.
Ministry of Tourism combined world tourism sales mission both carried out in Asia, Europe and America became a promotional event for 110 major Indonesian tourism events. An example is the participation of the ministry of tourism at TTG Asia in Bangkok Thailand, MATA Travel Malaysia, Singapore Tourism Sales Mission, Arabian Travel Mart, ITB Berlin which is the largest travel mart in the world. Even the Ministry of tourism makes various festivals “Wonderful Indonesia” in various potential countries like Australia, China and Japan.
Advertising is strong strategy for marketing. The combination of the use of various advertising media is used to maximize the message. The use of advertising media includes above the line media and bellows the line media. Above the line media used to promotion is billboards in big city like London, Paris, Amsterdam and New York. Bus advertising and taxi also use as media promotion. Ministry of tourism also paid advertising in international tv and also print ads space. Advertising is carried out based on the specified timeline. Advertising is done by using paid and own media owned by the Ministry of Tourism and the region as the event organizer.
The marketing strategy for the top 110 national tourism events cannot be separated from the role of organizational communication carried out by the ministry of tourism. Penta helix model as a form of collaboration in tourism management is carried out to support the implementation of the event. Ministry of Tourism does not work alone in carrying out marketing tasks but involves elements of tourism penta helix namely government (ministry of tourism, the regional tourism office as the executor), academics, business, media and community.
Regional commitment in carrying out events is important factors to curation. As the organizer, the regions will also help with promotion. At the business level the ministry involves business entities such as travel, hotels, airlines and other tourism industry sectors. At the media level the Ministry of tourism intervenes with various media both regular collaboration and event coverage and publication. Communities can represent various groups that exist in the community as partners and forms of public participation in organizing promotions.
In according with the marketing framework used by the ministry of tourism there is a distribution of the promotion timeline. Promotions for organizing events are divided into three parts, namely pre event, on event and post event. This division has a predetermined portion that is 70% pre event, 10% on event and 20% post event. The distribution of this timeline applies to all types of promotional media with various variants of promotional materials combain to the promotion phase.
In the research conducted, this formula is actually being standardization made to be commitment. All curation events are expected to have fix date. But various problems occur in the implementation of some events shifting in date and some even experience delays. This is certainly very weak planned because the consistency of the promotion time is the key to the success of the promotion and supporting tourist arrivals.
In addition to the distribution of portions based on time categories, the ministry sets different promotion times between national events and international events. If the event held as national event then the detailed event promotion will be intensified on the 14th day before. Meanwhile, for the international event the promotion will be conducted on the previous 1 month before. However, various initial messages have been conveyed in advance. Basically all events have been promoted since launching but the event details have a certain timeline. Promotion at the pre event is detailed information about the event such as the venue, time of implementation, rundown and attraction displayed. Whereas on event is an event implementation update at the time of the event. While the post event is an event implementation report. How much interest is coming and the impact of economis and organizing the event will be seen in the post event publication.
In the implementation, many events were not ready and were not committed to timeline. Directly the effectiveness of promotion is decreased because it is not in accordance with the timeline. The process of tourists in deciding a tour can’t be done at one time but requires a target and planning. In the interviews conducted there were many inconsistencies in the event so that the target of achieving the number of visits will automatically be corrected.
The media strategy used by the Ministry of Tourism in addition to relating to the timeline is the distribution of media as a promotional tool. Ministry of Tourism classified groups media into 4 types of media, namely paid media, own media, social media and endorsers. In practice, these four types of media are used together with content specifications and forms of promotion. The use of four types of media simultaneously aims to increase the effectiveness of messages to persuade tourists to visit. The following are media strategies undertaken by the Ministry of Tourism in the top 110 national tourism event marketing strategies
Paid media used by the ministry of tourism include various types of media both local media, national media and international media. Various print, online, and electronic media are chosen according to their respective target audience. The use of national and international local media is adjusted to the type of event to be held. If it is an international event, it will be used by international media in the hope of being able to encourage foreign tourist visits. National events will use national media to determine the characteristics of the event with the type of media used. Each media has different differentiation based on the class that is the amount of circulation or how popular the media is. For publications through the media selected in certain segments according to media categorization. For example there are detik travel, Kompass travel, Kumparan, Republika, or Indonesia travel.
Paid media in the promotion scheme is the purchase of media space to make publications and news related to the event. Various advertising media. Also done either through television electronic media, namely television advertisements, or feature screenings on traveling programs. Online media has become a form of publicity through many news portals and inserting advertisements on blog-based online media and news portals.
The media used by the ministry as paid media include print media (newspapers, travel magazines, inflight magazines), outdoor media or billboards as well as videotron, TV Commercial, Radio Commercials and online news portals. In addition the ministry also accessed various banners and promotional billboards in strategic places such as malls and airports. Commercial radio is usually done through the lips add
The Ministry of Tourism is also developing its own media such as websites, bulletins, monthly magazines, billboards and official social media accounts. Ministry of Tourism has a website www.indonesia.travel, www. Kemenpar.go.id, www.pesona.travel as the official website of the ministry of tourism. Each website has a special function such as promotion website, organizational website and website that raises various potential areas including events. Various events even have their own websites as landing pages for information and selling tickets and tour packages for the event. Own media from the organizer of the regional tourism office also used as a promotional media.
Own magazines and magazines from tourism agencies throughout Indonesia are used as promotional media for organizing events. In addition, regional assets as well as the ministry in the form of government billboards can be used as own media to promote top 100 national tourism events. Most events also print guide books that are provided at tourist information centers, hotels or airports so they can reach the audience.
Digital marketing has become one of the main strategies in promoting the Top 110 Calendar Of Tourism Events. Ministry of Tourism through its official account has a strategy for content variations. Promotion requires representative content so that the ministry uses content both photos and videos and writing as a form of event promotion. Various guides and schedules for implementing the event can be downloaded through the official account of the Ministry of Tourism in www.kemepar.go.id
Social media played an important role during the Arief Yahya era ( 2014 until October 2019). The Ministry of Tourism in 2017 launched the Go Digital promotion theme. Digital promotion is considered capable of providing high media exposure. Various media are used for the promotion of 110 Calendar of Tourism Events. The media used is very diverse. In addition to the official social media that the Ministry of Tourism has a special strategy in social media.
The use of social media is manage by professionally with digital monitoring through the social media command center in Ministry of Tourism building floor 15 Jakarta. Various social media platforms are used in a planned communication program. The use of social media involves external elements such as endorsers, communities and by doing paid promoting and social media advertising such as sponsored advertisements or collaboration with co-branding.
The social media used in the Top 110 Calendar of Tourism Event promotion program include Twitter, Instagram, Facebook and YouTube. Each social media has its own function and material according to the nature of the platform used. Content variations are used to match the characteristics of the audience. Each platform is optimized but still related to one another. The purpose of using these various platforms is to make the promotion viral and get high engagement rates and have maximum media exposure. Various platform used by ministry of tourism is Instagram account of @kemenpar, @pesonaid_travel, @indtravel and also facebook and twitter account
Viral starts from making news posted on various online media such as news portals, blogs and own media from Ministry of Tourism. Various social media platforms such as YouTube, Instagram and Facebook are used as a series of information networks. Twitter is used as the last medium to reach the trending topic. So when the trending event is tweeted, the hope is to be able to influence the editorial of the mainstream media. Other information is uploaded first in the hope that it has been indexed on search engines so that when searched through search engines various information will be related to events on various social media platforms.
Social media advertising or sponsored schemes are carried out through official accounts targeting a specific audience. For example the Tour De Bintan bicycle racing event held in Bintan, Riau Island, then targeted advertisements are in the Batam, Bintan, Jakarta and Malaysia and Singapore regions. This determination is based on location and availability of direct flight. Targeted audiences are also specific to a certain age and certain characteristics such as those who like bicycle sports and families who like to take vacations
Endorsers play an important role in media strategy in marketing the top 110 national tourism events. The endorser strategy is expected to be able to influence certain groups according to who is the endorser. The application of the endorser is adjusted to the characteristics of the event being promoted. Endorser also adjusts to the established promotion timeline. Endorsement material is message to be delivered by the tourism ministry or organizer.
Endorsers used in marketing the top 110 tourism events include artists, public figures, influencer media, community leaders to state officials such as tourism ministers to the President. Artists become endorsers through social media and community accounts. Artists are believed to have fans so they can have a significant influence. Various artists become endorsers according to their groups, for example at music festivals, art festivals and various cultural events
Not only public figure artists such as chefs, photographers, designers or curators of art become endorsers of various events held. Social media influencers with a certain number of followers, especially in the field of traveling, become endorsers who are always involved in the implementation of the event. On several occasions the special top 10 Wonderful event Minister of tourism Arief Yahya (until october 2019) was present as the host so it attracted the attention of the public. Some of the Top Wonderful Events were attended directly by Indonesian President Joko Widodo such as the Bali Arts Festival which was held for one month in Bali. Jokowi was present at the opening and attended the carnival.
The findings and discussion above provide an analysis that the marketing strategy for the 110 National Top Tourism Events is series of planning and communication management processes. Planning is carried out from the curation process, the involvement of experts to the launching process. Message planning through positioning, differentiation of events and branding so that message planning and design can be done well. Promotional content becomes very important thing by making one big frame of reference that is connected with the master brand “Wonderful Indonesia”. In addition to the message strategy and management communication planning is done by differentiating the promotion timings and the percentage of promotional material. This is considered very effective for marketing success because this timing will encourage call to action from the audience
Marketing strategies through media strategy are keys factor. Through the media mix is expected to optimize communication messages. The combination of paid media, own media, social media and endorsers with a monitoring and evaluation system makes the marketing strategy undertaken by the ministry of tourism considered more effective and efficient. Especially communication through planned social media will increase the effectiveness and optimization of the promotion being carried out
Top 110 Calendar Of National Events consisting of 100 National Main Events and 10 Wonderful Events is a positioning strategy as the Main Event of the Ministry of Tourism. This event is branding as the main event and is promoted through various media both paid media, own media, social media and endorsers by dividing the promotion time into 3 stages, pre event, on event and post event. Events are sold as tourism products through various marketing activities, including direct sales, advertising, publicity and public relations. The ministry of tourism in conducting marketing events does not work alone but involves four other elements of the tourism pentahelix such as government (Included Ministry of Tourism and the local governent), the media, the business sector, academics and the public through community participation.
Thanks to the Communication Studies Program of Mataram University of Lombok West Nusa Tenggara as sponsor in this research, colleagues, Ministry of Tourism Especially for Media and Communication Staff, Calendar of Event 2019 staff Member, West Nusa Tenggara Tourism Boards, Community GenPI ( Generasi Pesona Indonesia) for the willingness in interview.
Siti Chotijah, S.IP, MA is a lecturer of Communication Science Dept on Mataram University Lombok Indonesia. She has a research interest in communication strategy, marketing and communication also communication organization
Muhlis, S.Sos,I, MA is a lecturer of Communication Science Dept on Mataram University Lombok Indonesia. He has a research interest in Media and communication, Political Marketing and Intercultural communication
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